Are we bionic?

Bionic refers to applying biological ways and systems seen in nature to design and study the engineering systems. A bionic human would refer to human whose worn out parts can be repaired and refitted into the body. We cannot say that the whole of the human body is replaceable, but most parts can find replacements. There are replacements for human bones, teeth, vertebral discs. All these can be designed as per persons size and age. The tailored pants can be drawn in a few hours in a 3D printer to fit into the damaged parts. A device can even print a bone using a porous polymer that looks very real. The artificial bones may not be perfect and same as the natural bones. To give strength, we can add titanium powder with a laser. This would create pores on the bones, and the pores would be of different size and depth, making it look more natural, and these pores give strength and stiffness to the artificial bones. There are ways even to improve implants enabling tissues and bones to regenerate. There are lab results showing cartilage growth through artificial ways in labs. By such a process even damages such as…

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Biosignal Properties

The term Biosignal refers to all the signals generated in the human body or any other living organism. More specifically, it represents all those signals from living organisms that are monitored to obtain certain usage information. Primarily, the term refers to electrical signals in nature, but some non-electric signals are monitored. Typically, the changes in potential difference across a certain tissue in the body are measured in the case of bio-electric signals. Let us have a look at a few of the properties of biosignals generated by the human body that are analyzed to obtain information: Electroencephalography In the case of Electroencephalography, the activity of the human brain is monitored. Usually, at a synapse (junctions between the nervous system cells), the flow of ions occurs. This results in the formation of various signals that are used by the body to transfer information. The voltage variations caused by these signals are recorded, and thus, the brain’s activity is measured. Magnetoencephalography In Magnetoencephalography, the magnetic fields produced by the variations of electric currents that form the brain activity are monitored. For this, devices such as SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interface Devices) are used to have high sensitivity. Many difficulties are faced one tries…

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Digital Signal Processing – Applications

Digital signal processing is the technique used to analyze various digital signals and obtain information from the same. It is also used to transfer information from one place to another and involves conversion between analog and digital signals. It finds its application in various areas ranging from broadcasting to medicine. Let us have a look at some of the applications of the same. Biomedical Applications DSP is used extensively in the field of biomedicine. In it, the various signals generated by the different organs in the human body are measured to find information regarding the health of the same. For example, in the case of electrocardiograms, the electric signals generated by the heart are measured. Similarly, the activity of the brain is monitored by electroencephalograms. Automatic Control These days, many gadgets are available that can perform their tasks automatically. These devices contain various components that can take inputs depending on the surrounding conditions. These are conveyed to the device’s control unit, where they are processed, and the necessary action is taken. For example, a device like a thermostat increases its resistance in proportion to temperature. This can be used to stem the current in a machine whenever the temperature rises.

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Modelling different types of Biomedical Devices

Biomedical devices are those electrical devices that are used in medicine to carry out various tests on the human body. A lot of research has been performed in this field, and as a result, these devices have become indispensable as far as medicine is concerned. Let us have a look at some of the tasks that are performed by making use of these devices: For diagnosis of various diseases or abnormalities. In the prevention of these diseases, their cure, mitigation, etc. In many cases, some parts of the human body malfunction and are no longer able to perform their respective tasks. In such cases, these devices may be used as a replacement for those body parts. For example, a pacemaker is used for a person who has a weak heart. Based on the type of function that they perform and on other characteristics, these devices have been classified into the following three types: The first-class devices relatively cause less harm to the user and have been designed using simple techniques. These devices include ordinary items such as surgical gloves, tongue depressors, other hand-held instruments used in surgery, etc. The devices that belong to the second class have certain specialized applications…

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Robotic Assistance for the Disabled

Embedded devices, particularly digital ones specially designed to assist individuals with disabilities, are often seen as the next step in that particular field of technology.  Such embedded devices generally have several advantages over the previous wave of embedded devices that have monitoring functions, control capabilities, and the ability to access and use communication protocols like the internet.  The modern embedded applications devices do not stop monitoring, tracking, and relaying information; they almost always directly assist the user, such as a prosthetic limb or a personal transport assistance vehicle.

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The BrainSUITE neuro-imaging

Brain tumours are one of the most difficult medical conditions to diagnose and treat. Brain surgery, for obvious reasons, is complicated and very risky. Luckily, modern-day developments in medicine can make performing brain tumour diagnosis and, more importantly, brain surgery easier and less risky. With a combination of advanced electronic tools and a doctor’s skills and technical knowledge, there can be better prognosis for brain cancer patients.

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Embedded Electronics in Medicinal and Biological Sciences

Embedded medical and biological application refers to using technology and computers for observing certain events or generating a response when certain events occur. Embedded points to the fact that such devices are either small or very passive or both, such that the subjects of the observations are not continuously aware of it.

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Healthcare Service Using Embedded Electronics

Embedded electronics technology has been actively and rapidly being developed to transform traditional devices into adaptive and useful ones. Whether the equipment is an automatic water heater or a GRPS-powered diesel wheelchair, embedded electronics technologies are entering all possible aspects of human life and are being used to improve them. Digitized Healthcare Healthcare is also benefiting from the development of embedded electronics technology. Advanced medical equipment is being developed to improve response to emergency medical situations. The integration of several types of medical equipment is also being done to create digitized operating rooms and diagnostics areas that can respond to medical needs more efficiently and accurately.

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Removing 60Hz from ECG using digital band stop filter

Let’s make a filter, which filters off the 60Hz frequency from the ECG signal. As we know, the American power supply is 60Hz. This is a common noise in biomedical signals while the industrial power supply powers them. This type of noise can be defined easily and can be filtered as parameters of noise are known.Here is one example of how to implement an FIR filter using mathematical tools, like Matlab. This can be done using a microcontroller, like ARM or even AVR, because the frequencies are up to 1 kHz.Initial conditions: f0=60Hz – power supply frequency;fs=500Hz – sampling rate;frequencies who define complex zeros: we get w0=0.754;Positions of complex zeros: Zeros and poles in z plane System Function From it we can calculate filter coefficients: And filter coefficients: b3 = 1; b2 = -2cos(w0); b1 = 1 Also we know that: And here we get filter characteristics: We have a band stop filter at 60Hz, and its jam at 60Hz is -300dB. Bellow is a filter structure: Now using this filter we can filter ECG signal: As you can see, this is a simple FIR filter. In other words, there is nothing more than an average function that doesn’t need…

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