Everything You Need to Know About Protein Denaturation

Most proteins become functional once they acquire their native three-dimensional structure, which is dictated by the primary amino acid sequence of the protein. Denaturation is the process in which proteins, or more specifically, nucleic acids, lose their three-dimensional structure. The occurrence of denaturation can be due to many external factors and subsequently, this event can irreversibly disrupt the protein’s functionality1. Forces Involved in Protein Stability In the cell, linear polypeptides are synthesized from a sequence of mRNA, through a process known as translation. As the polypeptide is synthesized, it begins to fold into its three-dimensional structure in a process known as protein folding. The secondary structure, which includes the alpha helices and beta sheets, is stabilized by intramolecular hydrogen bonds between the amide hydrogen and carbonyl oxygen of the peptide bond that links the amino acids of the primary structure. Interactions between side chains of amino acids that comprise the protein determine the tertiary structure. The structure is firmly maintained due to the strength of hydrophobic interactions and the disulfide that bridges between the cysteine residues of the amino acids.

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The importance of statistical tests – statistical significance and confidence interval

When you start doing more serious research, you will need to conduct a statistical test. It helps you to determine whether your hypothesis is significant or can be rejected. If you start browsing for statistical analyses online, you will find a large number of possible test that can be chosen depending on your task. In this post, let us focus on a simple example of statistical analysis that would allow us to understand what is statistical significance and what is confidence interval. Building a test scenario To understand the matter lets use some random data which is distributed normally. For this, we can use 100 casual observations of the price tag for the new Nokia 3310 from different sources. The average price is around 50€ with a standard deviation of 10€ Now lets plot how those samples are distributed along with the standard distribution graph:

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4 Reasons to Study STEM

The term STEM refers to an education that is focused on four specific areas. These areas of study are science, technology, engineering and mathematics. STEM education is supposed to help students learn these topics in a unique way, focusing on interdisciplinary studies, as well as applying the knowledge that has been learned. The interest in STEM has changed over time, but here are four reasons to study STEM. Job Opportunities When choosing a career, it is important to consider if there are jobs available in that particular field. In the case of the STEM subjects, this is not a worry. There are a wide variety of jobs available in these four fields. If a person is not interested in working in the STEM fields specifically, the skills that are learned in STEM classes can be transferred to most other jobs. This includes skills like innovation and creativity, as well as other skills. There are also many jobs that are STEM-related, but are found in other fields. Scholarships There are many scholarships available to students who are studying the STEM subjects, particularly for women and minorities. These scholarships are designed to help encourage people to choose to attend college to study…

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The New Discovery on Microscopic Images

It’s very tough for us to see those very tiny images, especially the microscopic images with our bare eyes. After all, it’s totally impossible to do it, unless we can interpreting the images generated in a new way! A doctoral student at the research center of Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf had suggested that it’s possible to interpret and generate the microscopic images by Kelvin probe force microscopy. She mentioned that the atomic force microscopy is well-known, even though in the public as a versatile tool for the production of images on the nanoscale level. The Kelvin probe force microscopy is a special type of technique, which is named after Lord Kelvin, the British renowned mathematical physicist and engineer. Christine Baumgart, the doctoral student of the nanospintronics group at the FZD has described that the atomic force microscopes come along with a resolution even beyond the nanoscale level. The microscopes generate an image of the surface topography by only simply moving a tiny tip fixed on a small beam over the sample under investigation. The tip interacts with the atoms sitting on the surface of the sample is allowing the atoms to exert a force on the tip. As a result, the force…

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The Combination of Nanoelectronic Transistor with Biological Machine – The New Breakthrough to Better Eletronics!

Firstly, who will ever think that it’s possible to combine nanoelectronic transistor with biological machine, as they are completely two different things at all! However, the research team from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has announced that they’ve found a versatile hybrid platform, which is using lipid-coated nanowires to build prototype bionanoelectronic devices! Aleksandr Noy, the lead scientist of the research team said, the biological components in electronic circuits could be used to enhance biosensing, diagnostic tools, advance neural prosthetics or increase the efficiency of future computers, by boosting up the operating system! Nowadays, there are many modern communication devices mainly rely on electric fields and currents to carry the flow of information. In this case, the biological systems can do much better and complex than it! Technically, the biological systems use an arsenal (Not that Arsenal football team) of membrane receptors, channels and pumps to control signal transduction. For instance, the conversion of sound waves into nerve impulses is a highly complicated process; however, our ear can easily perform it without any mistake at all! Mr. Noy mentioned that the final goal of the research is to discover the effective ways to integrate biological systems with microelectronic, and turns the…

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The New Battery Revolution is arriving!

Did you know that Alessandro Volta was the man that invented the first battery in 1800? Honestly, if you have the chance to see the first battery, you won’t want it at all, as its size is as huge as a long couch! After years and years of modification, the batteries have rapidly changed, from the bulky and heavy to the powerful and slight forms. Open up your eyes widely, as you’re about to witness the world’s thinnest printable batteries! Yep, the batteries claimed to have a size thinner than a millimeter and lighter than a gram. The more incredible thing is it can be produced through a simple printing process. In the future, you won’t have to rush to the bank for updating your bank statement or doing the money transfer stuffs! With a touch of the EC card and a small integrated display, it shows the TAN number in front your eyes! After it, you just have to type in the TAN number and you’re done with the bank stuffs. Isn’t it as simple as ABC? Professor Dr. Reinhard Baumann and his team members from the Fraunhofer Research Intuition developed these magnificent printable batteries. They main objective is…

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