The laboratory rats, Rattus norvegicus, have been used in research, and their use is steadily augmented over the last decade. A laboratory mouse can be used as a biological research model in physiology, pharmacology, toxicology, immunology, theriogenology, molecular genetics, medicine, and oncology. Rats and mice are genetically characterized as distinct, and rats have a larger size to allow scientists to perform experiments. These rat models are economical in comparison with large animal models. However, sometimes obstacles increase in research work using genetically modified rats.
ICP-OES is a destructive analytical technique that uses an inductively coupled plasma to excite the atoms of a sample. It allows the analysis of about 60 elements at once. This method is also environmentally friendly, utilizing renewable energy. ICP-OES is a destructive analytical procedure ICP-OES produces line spectra, which show the composition of the sample. These spectra can be magnified to reveal the peak characteristics. Click here for more information. The spectral “lines” can have spectral interferences, but software can help identify the peaks unaffected by interferences.
Agricultural genomics is an emerging field with the potential to transform agriculture and food production. By applying the principles of genetics and genomics, agricultural scientists are developing new ways to improve crop yields, reduce crop losses due to pests and diseases, and develop new varieties of crops that are better adapted to local conditions. Agricultural genomics is already having an impact on agriculture and food production. For example, in the United States, farmers are using genomic technologies to produce crops that are resistant to herbicides and pests and develop new varieties of corn, soybeans, and other crops that can be grown in drought-prone areas.
Quartz crystal is a very thin oscillator that can provide stable frequency under certain conditions. In electronics, quartz crystals are widely used to provide steady and constant frequencies. However, crystal resonance properties are affected by environmental properties such as temperature or quartz plate mass. If, in electronics, this might be undesired effects, it becomes a valuable tool for biosensor applications in other areas such as nanotechnology, biology, and biomedicine. The changes in the crystal sensor frequency due to mass changes can be used to detect the properties of the environment. The method is the so-called Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation measurements or simply QCMD.
Commercial food packaging may seem simple, but it is actually a complex science with nitrogen playing a vital role in the whole process. The air that comes out of an opened bag of chips is nitrogen, not oxygen, and it’s there for a reason. Here are 3 facts you need to know about the use of nitrogen in commercial food packaging. Nitrogen is An Inert Gas Nitrogen is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that makes up 78% of the earth’s atmosphere. It is classified as an inert gas because it does not react with other elements under normal conditions. This makes nitrogen ideal for use in food packaging, as it does not alter the taste or other physical properties of the food. The same is not true for saying oxygen, which can cause food to spoil by oxidizing it and making it go rancid.
Contract development and manufacturing organization or CDMO is commonly used in the pharmaceutical industry. It involves comprehensive services involving drug substance manufacturing and other phases of its development. Learn about the latest on these organizations when you click here. Major companies may outsource these aspects of their business, leading others to discover new drugs or improve their scalability. Others may get CDMO services to focus on drug marketing and discovery instead of the formulation and research phases.
In mathematics, a binomial theorem is used for the expansion of the terms like (x + y) n. It is mostly used in statistics and mathematics for probability and statistical analysis and to expand the higher terms. It is very essential and important because our economy depends on probability and statistical analysis, Finding the roots of the equations having higher powers, for the higher mathematical calculations, the binomial theorem is used to do this. In this post, we will learn about this theorem and how to expand the higher terms by using it.
Based on their features and physical qualities, elements on Earth are classed as metals or nonmetals. Metals are depicted on the left side of the periodic table, whereas nonmetals are on the right. Metals are prone to losing electrons and forming cations, and they combine with oxygen to generate metal oxides. For example, potassium burns in seconds but iron rusts over a lengthy period of time, sometimes taking years to oxidize. Metal oxides are basic, whereas nonmetal oxides are acidic.
In Bio laboratories, numerous pieces of equipment are essential in conducting various experiments. So, the most basic lab equipment which is a must in any bio laboratory are as follow: Microscopes Microscopes are one of the most common types of equipment found in any bio laboratory. They are essential because biologists require them to conduct various research and experiments. They are costly and are powerful. They have delicate hardware that can make even the littlest cell pieces appear clear. Utilizing light emissions to enlighten the cells being seen, more expensive electron microscopes use light emissions to see even smaller particles.
TMB is a chromogenic substrate used to stain in immunohistochemistry and is also used in ELISA. This substrate is also known as the 3,3’5,5 – Tetramethylbenzidine, TMBE substrate, chromogenic ELISA substrate. It looks like a white solid that turns into a blue-green liquid using ethyl acetate. It is susceptible to sunlight and fluorescent lights. There is no proof of TMB being cancerous. It is also a substrate for horseradish peroxidase. How this is connected with TMB is through combining horseradish peroxidase with hydrogen peroxide makes the blue color appear in TMB. The way TMB is used in ELISA experiments is like an electron donor. How this works is converting peroxides into water changing the color to blue. If we want to stop this reaction, we can change the color of TMB to yellow by using acid in it.