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Everything You Need to Know About Protein Denaturation

Most proteins become functional once they acquire their native three-dimensional structure, which is dictated by the primary amino acid sequence of the protein. Denaturation is the process in which proteins, or more specifically, nucleic acids, lose their three-dimensional structure. The occurrence of denaturation can be due to many external factors and subsequently, this event can irreversibly disrupt the protein’s functionality1. Forces Involved in Protein Stability In the cell, linear polypeptides are synthesized from a sequence of mRNA, through a process known as translation. As the polypeptide is synthesized, it begins to fold into its three-dimensional structure in a process known as protein folding. The secondary structure, which includes the alpha helices and beta sheets, is stabilized by intramolecular hydrogen bonds between the amide hydrogen and carbonyl oxygen of the peptide bond that links the amino acids of the primary structure. Interactions between side chains of amino acids that comprise the protein determine the tertiary structure. The structure is firmly maintained due to the strength of hydrophobic interactions and the disulfide that bridges between the cysteine residues of the amino acids.

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The importance of statistical tests – statistical significance and confidence interval

When you start doing more serious research, you will need to conduct a statistical test. It helps you to determine whether your hypothesis is significant or can be rejected. If you start browsing for statistical analyses online, you will find a large number of possible test that can be chosen depending on your task. In this post, let us focus on a simple example of statistical analysis that would allow us to understand what is statistical significance and what is confidence interval. Building a test scenario To understand the matter lets use some random data which is distributed normally. For this, we can use 100 casual observations of the price tag for the new Nokia 3310 from different sources. The average price is around 50€ with a standard deviation of 10€ Now lets plot how those samples are distributed along with the standard distribution graph:

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4 Reasons to Study STEM

The term STEM refers to an education that is focused on four specific areas. These areas of study are science, technology, engineering and mathematics. STEM education is supposed to help students uniquely learn these topics, focusing on interdisciplinary studies and applying the knowledge that has been learned. The interest in STEM has changed over time, but here are four reasons to study STEM. Job Opportunities When choosing a career, it is important to consider if there are jobs available in that particular field. In the case of the STEM subjects, this is not a worry. There are a wide variety of jobs available in these four fields. If a person is not interested in working in the STEM fields, specifically, the skills learned in STEM classes can be transferred to most other jobs. This includes skills like innovation and creativity, as well as other skills. Many jobs are STEM-related but are found in other fields.

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What artificial intelligence can do these days?

Artificial Intelligence is part of a computer science program that deals in making machines behave and perform operations that a human being can commit. People have been trying to make devices behave like humans for a very long time, and today, with the help of advanced computing, people can achieve it. Artificial Intelligence, in short, is termed AI. There are various departments where Artificial Intelligence can be extensively used. Out of all departments, the defense is one area where the artificial department has been widely used. Gaming is another department where artificial intelligence is getting used. Gaming is prevalent among youngsters, and when these machines start responding to human beings’ requests, people get more excited. There is both advantage and disadvantage in Artificial Intelligence. One of the significant benefits is that by using artificial intelligence technology, we can make machines perform human activities, thus minimizing human labor. You can use devices to perform work that human beings found difficult. Nowadays, human beings can sit in their office and control their house computer. Not one researcher can invent an artificial intelligence system, and it takes years to build a proper and advanced artificial intelligence system.

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Invisibility Technologies

Invisibility is often used in movies to express a magical feeling in the minds of the viewers. The word ‘invisible’ itself is magical and needs a lot of connotation. When something is invisible, it creates a magical effect and a questioning mind, and this makes the viewers probe into the field of invisibility technology. Really is there something called invisibility cloaking? Fictional movies have used invisibility cloaking to make something disappear for some time, and when the cloak is removed, the thing or the person appears again. In 2008, a physicist named Michio Kaku prophesied that a feasible invisibility device like the ones used in Star Trek could emerge from research laboratories. He also quoted David Smith of the Duke University who had used meta-material to bend light around an object. He also quoted that German scientists have found that a meta-material can make the red light around the object.

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