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Are we bionic?

Bionic refers to applying biological ways and systems seen in nature to design and study the engineering systems. A bionic human would refer to human whose worn out parts can be repaired and refitted into the body. We cannot say that the whole of the human body is replaceable, but most parts can find replacements. There are replacements for human bones, teeth, vertebral discs. All these can be designed as per persons size and age. The tailored pants can be drawn in a few hours in a 3D printer to fit into the damaged parts. A device can even print a bone using a porous polymer that looks very real. The artificial bones may not be perfect and same as the natural bones. To give strength, we can add titanium powder with a laser. This would create pores on the bones, and the pores would be of different size and depth, making it look more natural, and these pores give strength and stiffness to the artificial bones. There are ways even to improve implants enabling tissues and bones to regenerate. There are lab results showing cartilage growth through artificial ways in labs. By such a process even damages such as…

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Digital Signal Processing – Applications

Digital signal processing is the technique used to analyze various digital signals and obtain information from the same. It is also used to transfer information from one place to another and involves conversion between analog and digital signals. It finds its application in various areas ranging from broadcasting to medicine. Let us have a look at some of the applications of the same. Biomedical Applications DSP is used extensively in the field of biomedicine. In it, the various signals generated by the different organs in the human body are measured to find information regarding the health of the same. For example, in the case of electrocardiograms, the electric signals generated by the heart are measured. Similarly, the activity of the brain is monitored by electroencephalograms. Automatic Control These days, many gadgets are available that can perform their tasks automatically. These devices contain various components that can take inputs depending on the surrounding conditions. These are conveyed to the device’s control unit, where they are processed, and the necessary action is taken. For example, a device like a thermostat increases its resistance in proportion to temperature. This can be used to stem the current in a machine whenever the temperature rises.

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Removing 60Hz from ECG using digital band stop filter

Let’s make a filter, which filters off the 60Hz frequency from the ECG signal. As we know, the American power supply is 60Hz. This is a common noise in biomedical signals while the industrial power supply powers them. This type of noise can be defined easily and can be filtered as parameters of noise are known.Here is one example of how to implement an FIR filter using mathematical tools, like Matlab. This can be done using a microcontroller, like ARM or even AVR, because the frequencies are up to 1 kHz.Initial conditions: f0=60Hz – power supply frequency;fs=500Hz – sampling rate;frequencies who define complex zeros: we get w0=0.754;Positions of complex zeros: Zeros and poles in z plane System Function From it we can calculate filter coefficients: And filter coefficients: b3 = 1; b2 = -2cos(w0); b1 = 1 Also we know that: And here we get filter characteristics: We have a band stop filter at 60Hz, and its jam at 60Hz is -300dB. Bellow is a filter structure: Now using this filter we can filter ECG signal: As you can see, this is a simple FIR filter. In other words, there is nothing more than an average function that doesn’t need…

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