Debug wire is an interface that enables debugging AVR microcontrollers by using one wire. All new AVR microcontrollers with less than 16kByte memory have a built-in one-wire bidirectional debugging interface that allows debugging devices in real-time. Like the JTAG interface, DebugWIRE can handle full execution and program flow control. It also supports an unlimited number of breakpoints, adjusting memory contents. The good thing is that interface doesn’t require additional pins as only the RESET pin is used for debugging purposes.
AVR microcontrollers have many ways to be programmed. One type of adapters are used only to program AVR memory others are used to program and debug. AVRISP The most known and common programming adapter is AVRISP, which is the basic tool and can be used to program Flash, EEPROM memory, most of the fuses, lock-bits for probably all 8bit AVR MCU’s. The programmer connects to a computer via an RS232 serial interface powered from the target board with no need additional power supply. The programmer connects to the target board via one of two headers â€“ 6 or 10pin. AVRISP from Atmel Corporation is designed to work from AVRStudio as front end software and is upgradable. However, AVRISP is discontinued due to the newer adapter appearance – AVRISP MKII. There are cheap third party clones available. But most of them aren’t compatible with AVRStudio but work well with programs like PonyProg or AVRDUDE.
This is continuing of part one. The following advice is for how to solder SMD parts with improved technology. Soldering Oven isolation As an isolation material, their glass insulation can be used. In this case, glass insulation was packed in aluminum foil: Inspected improvement in heating speed: 0.95% without isolation; 1.50% with isolation only inside oven; 1.72% full isolation.
Soldering SMD parts isn’t a hard task, and there are many methods of doing this. Let’s go through several SMD soldering methods and examples. Method 1: using the soldering iron For this you will need: Good sight or magnifying glass. Better one and another; Soldering iron with small tip ~10W; solder wire with a diameter of about 0.6mm Steps to follow: cut solder wire in pieces in the length of element width:
This Infrared(IR) detector circuit is a simple light relay that triggers when infrared light is applied to phototransistor Q1. This device can be used in control systems. When infrared light is OFF, the Q1 transistor and relay K1 are normally closed. When the IR diode is transmitting IR light, phototransistor Q1 opens and thus relays K1 triggers because current starts flowing through the Q2 transistor. Construction can easily be modified when circuit output is connected to a microcontroller or another device. Sensitivity so the distance can be controlled by changing IR diode D1, using more sensitive phototransistor Q1, and adjusting the R2 resistor.
Most of the driver’s car is more than a vehicle. Sometimes people spend hours in the car every day and listens to the news radio broadcast and listens to music. Having good quality music sound in the car requires more than good speakers and power amps, but some smart solutions are also needed to make it sound better. There are plenty of publications on how to DIY a good car sound system at home in the current time. Even the best power amplifier does not guarantee that car music will sound like Hi-Fi class. The main problem is the hard installation of the audio-system inside the vehicle. In many cases, speakers are installed where ever they fit in the car. But there is also no clear answer where it is the best place to install speakers and how. The most common mistake is to place powerful high-quality speakers in the rear shelf while the speaker’s front position is installed or not at all. Such an audio system installation gives a feeling like he is sitting back to the scene.
When you are done with a clean period of task – designing, drawing a circuit, and tracing a PCB, you need to transfer a design to a real board. Here starts what I call a messy part of the design. When designing at home, there are several options – to use prototyping boards or make PCB by yourself. You have to transfer the PCB image to a board with a copper layer in the second option. There are several methods of doing this: direct transfer with glossy paper where the image is printed with a laser printer or more advanced ultraviolet exposure. This way, the PCB image is printed on paper or film directly from the program window without keeping in mind PCB file formats. A different situation is when fabricating professional PCB’s. Each company that fabricates PCB boards always announce what type of file formats they support. So if you are going to order a PCB, better check with them to save your time. The most common and standard format is the so-called Gerber file format. Almost all layout tools can produce Gerber files. If you want to preview your generated Gerber files, there is a nice free Gerber…
One of the hardest tasks when fabricating PCBs is a Printed Circuit Board(PCB) routing. There are no unified rules on how properly board should be routed, and it would be impossible to write them as the situation on each board is different. One of the general rules is that the shortest routes are the best because longer routes tend to generate more noises or pick them up from different sources. Every conducting material acts as an antenna, no exception with PCB routes. No secret that each route acts as a small transmitting and receiving antenna. So one thing is to keep in mind when routing PCB is to route short as possible. Another concerning area is a cross-talk or cross-coupling between routes. This effect appears when two traces run along with each other, and energy from one trace route couples to another. This effect is obvious in high frequency digital and analog circuits. This effect can make the device dis-functional because only of the cross-coupling effect. These defects are hard to determine as the electrical circuit board is correct. If this effect is noticed â€“ the only solution is to cut traces off and run separate wires instead. It is…
Sometimes you haven’t the ability to flash a microcontroller to test program functionality in the development phase. For this, there may be many reasons, like you don’t have a prototype ready or you need to test parts of code, and so on. For this, there are software simulators used that simulates microcontroller work without microcontroller itself. Simulators usually don’t have a connection to the real-world all operations are simulated in software. A microcontroller simulator is a program model that imitates its work. Modern simulators now simulate arithmetic operations and I/O operations and even peripherals like timers, ADC, USART, I2C, and so on. In many cases, it is possible to prepare the whole project using the simulator and then burn compiled code to a real microcontroller. Simulators usually allow: debugging at source code level; follow operation time in slow motion but with real-world values; connect stimulus signals like they are real-world signals. The simulator can be expressed as several blocks interconnected with each other:
Car owners know that small scratches may cause rusting, which will expand even under painted areas. Fighting rusting is a pretty hard task. There are lots of methods that car keepers are using to prevent rusting. Many are using anti-rust coating, but it has shortcomings – success depends on how good it has been done. The rusted area needs to be cleaned with care and sometimes requires disassembling some pieces of a car. Such an operation requires a decent amount of time and constant control. The car is always in a stressed environment: cold, salt, water, vibrations, stones, and other harsh conditions. There is still a chance of damaging surface coating. For constant prevention from further rusting, there is an electronic device used which requires only one installation.