A printed circuit board or a PCB is able to provide mechanical support to electronically connected electronic parts of a device using traces which are etched using copper sheets, conductive pathways, etc. laminated on a substrate of a non conductive nature. Usually, there are preset IPC organization standards that help to design the PCB layout, maintain a certain level of quality, and follow a proper assembly pattern accepted by the industry. PCBs usually follow the IPC 2221A standard in terms of design and quality control, and it is the same for any material the PCB is made with. An insulator is a prime component of any PCB, which is home to a variety of layers of materials attached to the insulator itself. All these layers act as a form of grounding to the entire PCB. Now coming to the copper traces – they are created either by mechanical laying of individual lines, or by applying a copper coat to the entire board and stripping away what is left after your work is done. The second process is much more efficient, as this ensures that you have the exact amount of copper traces required on the PCB for connecting electronic components.