Logical elements are circuits that perform logical operations. Logical elements are used in digital circuits and are used to express Boolean algebra. The system of logical operations was defined by George Boolean English mathematician in 1848.

Firs logical element was used by Ernest Nagel in 1910. It was a calculator made of telephone relays…

Let’s go to nowadays and clarify what is logical algebra. There are only two values in logical algebra: **True **or **False **, they are identified as numbers **1** for **True **and **0** – for **False**. Because there are two digits used, so this is why digital electronics is called as it is – Digital Electronics – the electronics which operates with two digits.

Logical operations may be as follows:

- Logical negation – ¬A (in different sources negation has various markings like Ä);
- Logical OR – C=A + B (in other literature you may find C=AuB);
- Logical AND – C=A*B (in other literature you may find C=AˆB).

There is whole theory of logical algebra. You may find a lot information in Wikipedia sources.

For us there is more interesting electronic part of logical functions.

Simply there are electronic devices who perform these three basic operations:

Negation – logical NOT:

Logical OR:

Logical AND:

By combining these three functions, we can get any result. All digital electronics is based on these three logical operators.

Logical elements can be classified by working mode: *statical* and *dynamical*. Statical logical elements may work in static, pulse and dynamic modes while dynamic logical elements may only work in pulse mode.

In the other hand, logical elements may be ** gates **– that reacts immediately and cannot store any value. And other elements may be combined from gates – so-called

**(registers, flip-flops).**

*latch*esSome examples of gates: Encoder, decoder, multiplexer, demultiplexer, comparator, adder;

Latches are triggers, registers, counters – all other that have some storage memory.