Atmega 128 is like other AVR microcontrollers. They are ISP – is in-system programmable. Earlier I wrote an article about AVR ISP programmer where 74HC244 buffer is used. Using buffer is safer for your AVR.
But what if you need 128 atmega programmer without any parts, then you can connect your microcontroller directly to LPT port or use protection resistors (220R) just in case. of course circuit works without resistors, but you put your LPT port at risk.
Just connect GND, SCK, MISO, MOSI and RESET to adequate LPT pins and you can program atmegaâ€™s flash memory without removing it from socket. Programming software can be PonyProg