At the current rate of the usage of the energy which is obtained from the fossil fuels such as the crude oil and the other non renewable sources of the energy such as the coals, it is estimated that the these resources would not be lasting until the end of this century. There is a great need to develop alternate sources of the energy which will be available in the unlimited quantity and also does not have any harmful effect on the environment without the emission of the harmful gases. Also there is big problem which are being associated with the usage of the fossil fuels that it emits large amount of the carbon di oxide gases and also the other greenhouse gases such as the sulphur di oxide which increases the temperature of the earth.
Thermonuclear reactions as the name itself suggests occurs at a very high temperature such the atomic nuclei of the two atoms being fused together can overcome the coulombic forces and can combine to produce a great amount of the energy. The controlling of this reaction is a very big challenge and there has been large amount of the research works which are being carried in various parts of the world to harness the unlimited quantity of the energy which can be extracted from this reaction.
Control of thermonuclear reactions
For the thermonuclear reactions to take place the atomic particles must be subjected to a very high level of the temperature. For example two atoms of the deuterium and also a deuterium with a tritium can produce thermonuclear reactions. At this very high level of the temperature state the atomic particles would be converted into the state of the ionized plasma particles. There is a recent research which is being carried out to produce the thermonuclear reactions in the gaseous discharge state. Under the plasma conditions the energy which is required to be concentrated on the atomic particles should be of very low level. Hence the amount of the energy which is required to raise the one gram of the deuterium particle in the plasma condition boil the water re of about hundred thousand degrees will be only around few KW-hours. This energy is just equivalent to boil the water for family purpose in a large container.
Thus if one can achieve a method in which it is possible to heat the plasma with practically no thermal loss of the energy then it will be possible to control the thermonuclear reactions. To achieve this objective the heat loss from the system should be almost eliminated but the deuterium particles basically conducts the heat.
Magnetic method for control
Since the plasma particles are good conductors of the electricity, it is possible to hold the particles with the application of the magnetic forces. Hence a reactor can be build in which it is possible to control the reaction with the help of the magnetic forces. Research work is going in this field of work also.
Slowly and steadily there is an increase in the progress of controlling the thermonuclear reaction. Once it is achieved, it will be possible to harness large amount of the energy which will be harmless to the environment.